SCENARIO-BASED MODELLING: Storytelling our way to success. 1

“The soft stuff is always the hard stuff.”

Unknown.

Whoever said ‘the soft stuff is the hard stuff’ was right.  In fact, Douglas R. Conant, coauthor of TouchPoints: Creating Powerful Leadership Connections in the Smallest of Moments, when talking about an excerpt from The 3rd Alternative: Solving Life’s Most Difficult Problems, by Stephen R. Covey, goes on to note:

“In my 35-year corporate journey and my 60-year life journey, I have consistently found that the thorniest problems I face each day are soft stuff — problems of intention, understanding, communication, and interpersonal effectiveness — not hard stuff such as return on investment and other quantitative challenges. Inevitably, I have found myself needing to step back from the problem, listen more carefully, and frame the conflict more thoughtfully, while still finding a way to advance the corporate agenda empathetically. Most of the time, interestingly, this has led to a more promising path forward and a better relationship, which in turn has made the next conflict easier to deal with.”

Douglas R. Conant.

Conant is talking about the most pressing problem in modern organisations – making sense of stuff.

Sense Making

Companies today are awash with data.  Big data.  Small data.  Sharp data.  Fuzzy data.  Indeed, there are myriad software companies offering niche and bespoke software to help manage and analyse data.  Data, however is only one-dimensional.  To make sense of inforamtion is, essentially, to turn it into knowledge. To do this we need to contextualise it within the frameworks of our own understanding.  This is a phenomenally important point in sense-making; the notion of understanding something within the parameters of our own metal frameworks and it is something that most people can immediately recognise within their every day work.

Contextualisation

Take, for instance, the building of a bridge.  The mental framework by which an accountant understands risks in building the bridge is uniquely different from the way an engineer understands the risks or indeed how a lawyer sees those very same risks.  Each was educated differently and the mental models they all use to conceptualise the same risks (for example)  leads to different understandings.  Knowledge has broad utility – it is polyvalent – but it needs to be contextualised before it can be caplitalised.

Knowledge has broad utility – it is polyvalent – but it needs to be contextualised before it can be caplitalised.

For instance, take again the same risk of a structural weakness within the new bridge.  The accountant will understand it as a financial problem, the engineer will understand it as a design issue and the lawyer will see some form of liability and warranty issue.  Ontologically, the ‘thing’ is the same but its context is different.  However, in order to make decisions based on their understanding, each person builds a ‘mental model’ to re-contextualise this new knowledge (with some additional information).

There is a problem.

Just like when we all learned to add fractions when we were 8, we have to have a ‘common denominator’ when we add models together.  I call this calibration, i.e. the art and science of creating a common denominator among models in order to combine and make sense of them.

Calibration

Why do we need to calibrate?  Because trying to analyse vast amounts of the same type of information only increases information overload.  It is a key tenent of Knowledge Management that increasing variation decreases overload.

It is a key tenent of Knowledge Management that increasing variation decreases overload.

We know this to be intuitively correct.  We know that staring at reams and reams of data on a spreadsheet will not lead to an epiphany.  The clouds will not part and the trumpets will not blare and no shepherd in the sky will point the right way.  Overload and confusion occurs when one has too much of the same kind of information.  Making sense of something requires more variety.  In fact, overload only increases puzzlement due to the amount of uncertainty and imprecision in the data.  This, in turn, leads to greater deliberation which then leads to increased emotional arousal.  The ensuing ‘management hysteria’ is all too easily recognisable.  It leads to much more cost growth as senior management spend time and energy trying to make sense of a problem and it also leads to further strategic risk and lost opportunity as these same people don’t do their own jobs whilst trying to make sense of it.

De-Mystifying

In order to make sense, therefore, we need to aggregate and analyse disparate, calibrated models.  In other words, we need to look at the information from a variety of different perspectives through a variety of lenses.  The notion that IT companies would have us believe, that we can simply pour a load of wild data into a big tech hopper and have it spit out answers like some modern Delphic oracle is absurd.

The notion that IT companies would have us believe, that we can simply pour a load of wild data into a big tech hopper and have it spit out answers like some modern Delphic oracle is absurd.

Information still needs a lot of structural similarity if it’s to be calibrated and analysed by both technology and our own brains.

The diagram below gives an outline as to how this is done but it is only part of the equation.  Once the data is analysed and valid inferences are made then we still are only partially on our way to better understanding.  We still need those inferences to be contextualised and explained back to us in order for the answers to crystalise.  For example, in our model of a bridge, we may make valid inferences of engineering problems based on a detailed analysis of the schedule and the Earned Value but we still don’t know it that’s correct.

Storytelling

As an accountant or lawyer, therefore, in order to make sense of the technical risks we need the engineers to play back our inferences in our own language.  The easiest way to do this is through storytelling.  Storytelling is a new take on an old phenomenon.  It is the rediscovery of possibly the oldest practice of knowledge management – a practice which has come to the fore out of necessity and due to the abysmal failure of IT in this field.

Scenario-Based Model Development copy

Using our diagram above in our fictitious example, we can see how the Legal and Finance teams, armed with new analysis-based  information, seek to understand how the programme may be recovered.   They themselves have nowhere near enough contextual information or technical understanding of either the makeup or execution of such a complex programme but they do know it isn’t going according to plan.

So, with new analysis they engage the Project Managers in a series of detailed conversations whereby the technical experts tell their ‘stories’ of how they intend to right-side the ailing project.

Notice the key differentiator between a bedtime story and a business story – DETAIL!  Asking a broad generalised question typically elicits a stormy response.  Being non-specific is either adversarial or leaves too much room to evade the question altogether.  Engaging in specific narratives around particular scenarios (backed up by their S-curves) forces the managers to contextualise the right information in the right way.

From an organisational perspective, specific scenario-based storytelling forces manages into a positive, inquistive and non-adversarial narrative on how they are going to make things work without having to painfully translate technical data.  Done right, scenario based modelling is an ideal way to squeeze the most out of human capital without massive IT spends.

 

 

 

 

 

Hidden Costs in ICT Outsourcing Contracts Reply

hidden-costs

Why are IT outsourcing contracts almost always delivered over-budget and over-schedule?  Why do IT outsourcing contracts almost always fail to achieve their planned value? How come IT contracts seem to be afflicted with this curse more than any other area?

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The common answer is that (i) the requirements change,  and (ii) that handovers from the pre-contractual phase to in-service management are always done poorly.  These are both true although hardly explain the complexity of the situation.  If requirements change were an issue then freezing requirements would solve it – it doesn’t.  The complexity of large ICT projects is derived directly from the fact that not all the requirements are even knowable from the outset.  This high level of unknown-unknowns, coupled with the inherent interdependence of business and system requirements, means that requirements creep is not only likely but inevitable.  Secondly, (ii) handover issues should be able to be solved by unpicking the architecture and going back to the issue points.  This too is never so simple.  My own research has shown that the problem is not in the handover but that the subtleties and complexities of the project architecture is not usually pulled through into the management and delivery structures.  Simply put, it is one thing to design an elegant IT architecture.  It is another thing entirely to design it to be managed well over a number of years.  Such management requires a range of new elements and concepts that never exist in architectural design.

The primary factor contributing to excessive cost (including from schedule overrun) is poor financial modelling.  Simply put, the hidden costs were never uncovered in the first place.  Most cost models are developed by finance teams and uncover the hard costs of the project.  There are, overall however, a total of 3 cost areas which must be addressed in order to determine the true cost of it outsourcing. 

True Cost of IT

1.  Hard costs.  This is the easy stuff to count; the tangibles.  These are the standard costs, the costs of licensing, hardware, software etc.  It is not just the obvious but also includes change management (communications and training).  The Purchasor of the services should be very careful to build the most comprehensive cost model based on a detailed breakdown of the project structure, ensuring that all the relevant teams input costing details as appropriate.

2.  Soft Costs.  The construction industry, for instance, has been building things for over 10,000 years.  With this level of maturity one would imagine that soft costs would be well understood.  They are not.  With project costs in an extremely mature sector often spiralling out of proportion it is easy to see that this might also afflict the technology sector which is wildly different almost from year to year. 

Soft costs deal with the stuff that is difficult to cost; the intangibles:  The cost of information as well as process and transaction costs.  These costs are largely determined by the ratio of revenue (or budget in terms of government departments) against the Sales, General & Administration costs, i.e. the value of the use of information towards the business.  Note that this information is not already counted in the cost-of-goods-sold for specific transactions.

Soft costs go to the very heart of how a business/government department manages its information.  Are processes performed by workers on high pay-bands?  Are workflows long and convoluted?  The answers to these questions have an exponential effect on the cost of doing business in an information-centric organisation.  Indeed, even though the cost of computing hardware is decreasing, the real cost of information work – labour – is increasing.  This is not just a function of indexed costs but also the advent of increasing accreditation and institutionalisation in the knowledge worker community.  Firstly, there is greater tertiary education for knowledge work which has hitherto been unaccounted for or part of an external function.  The rise of the Business Analyst, the Enterprise Architect (and a plethora of other “architects”) all serve to drive delivery costs much higher.  Not only are the costs of this labour increasing but the labour is now institutionalised, i.e. its place and value is not questioned – despite the data showing there seems to be limited economic value added through these services (i.e. no great improvement in industry delivery costs).

3.  Project Costs.  Projects are never delivered according to plan.  Requirements are interpreted differently, the cohesion of the stakeholder team can adversely impact the management of the project, even the sheer size and complexity of the project can baffle and bewilder the most competent of teams.  Supply chain visibility, complicated security implementations and difficult management structures all add to project friction and management drag.  There are many more factors which may have an adverse or favourable effect on the cost of performing projects. 

IT Transition Cost Graph

In the Defence community, Ph.D student Ricardo Valerdi created a cost model – COSYSMO – which isolated 14 separate factors peculiar to systems engineering projects  and gave these factors cost coefficients in a cost model.  Ultimately, each factor may be scored and the scoring then determines the effort multiplier, usually a number between approximately 0.6 and 1.8.  Naturally, when all factors are taken into account the overall effect on the contract price is significant. 

More importantly, for IT implementations, the “project” is not short.  IT outsourcing projects are generally split into 2 phases:  Transition and Transformation.  Transition involves what outsourcers call “shift-and-lift” or the removal of the data centres from the customer site and rear-basing or disposal of the hardware which allows the company to realise significant cost savings on office space. 

During the second phase – Transformation – the business seeks to realise the financial benefits of outsourcing.  Here, a myriad of small projects are set about in order to change the way a business operates and thereby realise the cost benefits of computer-based work, i.e. faster processes from a reduced headcount and better processes which are performed by workers on a lower pay-band. 

IT outsourcing  is not just about the boxes and wires.  It involves all the systems, hard and soft, the people, processes and data which enable the business to derive value from its information.  Just finding all of these moving parts is a difficult task let alone throwing the whole bag of machinery over the fence to an outsourcing provider.   To continue the metaphor, if the linkages between the Purchasor and the Vendor are not maintained then the business will not work.  More importantly, certain elements will need to be rebuilt on the Purchasor’s side of this metaphorical fence, thus only serving to increase costs overall.  The financial modelling which takes into account all of these people, processes and systems must, therefore, be exceptional if an outsourcing deal is to survive.

Will CIOs Really Focus on the Business in 2013? Reply

“Whilst CIOs are predominantly drawn from the infrastructure segment of ICT there is unlikely to be a shift in focus towards proactive business initiatives.”

The CIO’s commercial prerogatives largely stem from CEO directives as they tally with other recent CEO surveys from McKinsey & Co etc.  It is likely, however, that need to increase services to corporate clouds through a myriad of new/personal devices during these times of severe cost pressures will keep CIOs occupied for the next year, at least.

Looking to the future, until business schools focus their corporate decision making modules on information management and technology enablers the dearth of IM savvy senior executives will continue and thereby the pull-through into the CIO role.  The solution is likely to come in one of two ways, namely:

  1. A cost/complexity inflection point will be reached.  Medium sized businesses will begin to outsource not only their IT but also their IM.  As better IM begins to solve business problems some people will naturally be pulled through into corporate CIO roles at FTE.
  2. Alternately, clever CEOs will shift the accounting of their IT departments towards Profit Centres.  CIOs will be forced to come up with innovative chargeback models and new services in order to compete beyond storage  for non-essential services.  The good will survive and the bad will move back to being small, in-house IT departments.

 

The Cost of Capability: a better way to calculate IT chargebacks Reply

IT_Profit_Centre

THE VALUE OF SHARED SERVICES

Almost every C-Suite executive will agree that shared services, done well, are a critical factor in moving the business forward.  The problem is that implemented poorly they can potentially overload good processes and profitable service lines with villainous overhead allocations.

IT chargebacks are important because, used well,  they can assist the business with the following:

  • help IT prioritise service delivery to the most profitable business units,
  • help the business understand which IT services are value-adding to the market verticals, and
  • reduce the overall vulnerability of IT-enabled business capability.

OVERHEAD ALLOCATIONS CAN RUIN GOOD PROCESSES

However, many shared service implementations are poorly received by the business units because they add little or no value and are charged at higher than the market rate.  As Kaplan pointed out in his seminal work “Relevance Lost: the rise and fall of management accounting” the result of poor overhead cost allocation is that perfectly profitable processes and services, burdened by excessive and misallocated overhead costs seem to be unprofitable.  Kaplan goes further and points out that all overhead which cannot be directly incorporated into the cost-of-goods-sold should be absorbed by the business and not charged back to the market verticals and service lines.  This is the fairest method but most businesses avoid this method because high SG&A costs has a negative impact on financial ratios and therefore investor attractiveness.

HIGGLEDY-PIGGLEDY 

In a recent article (shown below) McKinsey & Co pointed out a variety of methods which their client firms use to calculate IT chargebacks.   Even though they differentiated between new and mature models it is worth noting that very few companies charged their business units for what they used (Activity-Based Costing).   Rather, they used some form of bespoke methodology.  This is usually (i) a flat rate, (ii) a budget rate with penalties (for behaviour change), or (iii) a market rate (usually with additional penalties for IT R&D costs).

IT Chargebacks. McKinsey. IT Metrics

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ALIGNMENT & ACCOUNTABILITY

Chargebacks are essential.  They are a critical means for companies to take charge of their IT costs.  Otherwise, a ballooning IT overhead can destroy perfectly good processes and service lines.  However, chargebacks can obscure accountability.  If they are not calculated transparently, clearly and on the basis of value then there will be no accountability of IT to the business and whose capabilities they enable.  Without  accountability there can also never be alignment between IT and the business.

CHARGEBACK AS AN INDICATOR OF MANAGEMENT-VALUE-ADDED

Traditional methods of IT cost modelling, on which standard chargebacks are calculated, only account for the hard costs of ICT,  namely infrastructure and applications.  It should be noted that chargebacks should only be applied for Management Information Systems (eg, knowledge bases, team collaboration sites such as MS Sharepoint, CRM systems, and company portals etc).  All other systems are either embedded (eg, robotics etc) or operational, (ie mission critical to a business unit’s operations).  MIS are largely used by overhead personnel whereas operational systems and the finance for embedded systems should be accounted for in the cost-of-good-sold.  The real question therefore, is: what is the value of the management support to my business?  The question underlies the myth that Use = Value, which it does not.  Good capability applied well = Value.

THE COST OF CAPABILITY

The cost model, therefore, needs to determine the cost of capability.  Metrics based on per unit costs are inappropriate because the equipment amortises so rapidly that the cost largely represents a penalty rate.  Metrics based on per user costs are unfair because each user is at a different level of ability.  In previous blogs we have outlined how low team capabilities such as distributed locations, poor requirements, unaligned processes etc all have a negative and direct financial correlation on project values.  We have also written about how projects should realise benefits along a value ladderdelivering demonstrable financial and capability benefits – rung by rung – to business units.

It is reasonable to say, therefore, that managers should not have to pay the full chargeback rate for software which is misaligned to the business unit and implemented badly.

It is unfair for under-performing business units to be charged market rates for inappropriate software which the IT department mis-sold them.  If that business unit where a company in its own right they be offered customisation and consulting support.  In large firms the business often scrimps on these costs to save money.  Given the usual overruns in software implementations business units are traditionally left with uncustomised, vanilla software which does not meet their needs.  The training budget is misallocated to pay for cost overruns and little money is ever left for proper process change.

In order to create a fair and accurate chargeback model which accounts for the Cost of Capability, use the following criteria:

  • Incorporate the COSYSMO cost coefficients into software and service costings so that low capability business units pay less.
  • Only charge for  professional services which the business doesn’t own.  Charging for professional/consulting serrvices which are really just work substitution merely encourages greater vertical integration.  This is duplication and duplication in information work creates friction and exponential cost overruns.
  • Watch out for category proliferation, especially where the cost of labour for some unique sub-categories is high.  Don’t let the overall cost model get skewed by running a few highly specialised services.  Remove all IT delivery personnel from the verticals.  Where there are ‘remoteness’ considerations then have people embedded but allocate their costs as overhead.
  • Do not allow project cost misallocation.  Ensure that cost codes are limited.

In order that businesses do not fall into the “Build and they will Come” trap a clear and precise chargeback model should be created for all IT costings.   Businesses should start by charging simple unit costs such as per user.  Everything else will initially be an overhead but firms may then move to a more complex chargeback model later.

It is important that low capability business units do not pay full price for their software and services.  As Kaplan is at pains to point out, where businesses do this they are at risk of making perfectly good processes and service lines seem unprofitable.  The only way to properly broker for external services is to account for the cost of capability.

 

The Complexity of Cost: the core elements of an ICT cost model Reply

cost model. financial modelThere are 2 reasons why IT cost cost reduction strategies are so difficult:  Firstly, many of the benefits of ICT are intangible and it is difficult to trace their origin.  It is hard to determine the value of increased customer service or the increase in productivity from better search and retrieval of information.   Secondly, many of the inputs which actually make IT systems work are left unaccounted for and unaccountable.  The management glue which implements the systems (often poorly and contrary to the architecture) and the project tools, systems and methods which build/customise  the system (because IT, unlike standard captital goods, is often maintained as a going concern under constant development, e.g. upgrades, customisation, workflows etc) are very difficult to cost.

Standard IT cost models only account for the hard costs of the goods and services necessary to implement and maintain the infrastructure, applications and ancillary services.  Anything more is believed to be a project cost needed to be funded by the overhead.

This is unsatisfactory.

The value of technology systems – embedded systems excluded – is in the ability of information workers to apply their knowledge by communicating with the relevant experts (customers, suppliers etc) within a structured workflow (process) in order to achieve a corporate goal.

Capturing the dependencies of knowledge and process within the cost model, therefore, is critical.   Showing how the IT system enables the relevant capability is the critical factor.  A system is more valuable when used by employees who are trained than less trained.  A system is more valuable when workers can operate, with flexibility, from different locations.  A system is more valuable where workers can collaborate to solve problems and bring their knowledge to bear on relevant problems.  So how much is knowledge management worth?

The full cost of a system – the way they are traditionally modelled – assumes 100% (at least!) effectiveness.  Cost models such as COSYSMO and COSYSMOR account for internal capability with statistical coefficients.  Modelling soft costs such as information effectiveness and technology performance helps the business define the root causes of poor performance rather than subjective self-analysis.  If a firm makes the wrong assessment of capability scores in COSYSMO the projected cost of an IT system could be out by tens of millions.

Financial models for IT should therefore focus less on the cost of technology and more on the cost of capability.  The answer to this is in modelling soft costs (management costs), indirect costs and project costs as well as the hard costs of the system’s infrastructure, apps and services.

 

The Complexity of Cost (Pt.2): a 3-tiered strategy for an effective ICT cost reduction program Reply

cost-reduction

In our last blog we recounted that most ICT cost reduction programs fail.  More to the point, we noted how they fail in larger businesses through a vicious cycle following increased overhead from poor process analysis.  All this stems from a limited view of direct and indirect ICT spend.

In summ, the answer is detailed cost modelling of ICT which analyses the firm’s technology in its place as a business capability enabler. This is vital in the current economic climate otherwise businesses will simply benchmark their costs against similar firms rather than try to pare ICT costs to the bone.

The results of traditional IT programs?

  1. ICT cost reduction programs usually only attack the easy and obvious.  For sustained cost management in ICT the cost reduction program needs to attack:  (i) soft costs (indirect spend), (ii) managerial costs and (iii) program costs as well as all the standard hard costs.
  2. Cost cutting reduces capability.  Traditional approach is to cut applications and services as well as heads but capability will eventually suffer.  Senior people are often made redundant was work is pushed from higher to lower paybands.  With them also goes much of the firm knowledge capital and goodwill of the firm.  If we want to quantify this cost of lost knowledge it is the difference between the market value and the book value of a business.

The problem is that IT is usually seen as a black box.  Few senior executives understand the subtle dependencies which stretch from technology throughout the business.  More importantly, few understand that actual capex and opex of ICT  just represents the hard costs of ICT.  In addition to the hard costs are the soft costs, the management costs and the program costs of ICT.  In more detail:

  • Soft Costs relate to all the indirect spend which flows from ICT procurement.  This may include travel for non-IT personnel involved in change, training and customisation or process change etc.
  • Managerial Costs is the accumulated cost of decision making from management.  This is pure overhead and is not accounted for in the Cost of Goods Sold but rather shows up in bloated Sales, General & Administrative (SGA) accounts.
  • Program Costs are the costs of running ICT programs beyond the costs accounted for in the various cost allocation systems.  These can be the cost of running distributed teams, the cost of low development capability etc.  Such cost coefficients are statistically generated.

On top of all these are the hard costs of ICT.

Borrowing diagrams from Accenture  the solution is to run a 3-tiered cost reduction strategy:

strategic cost management.accenture

After the easy stuff is done, the business must ultimately streamline its processes (and align cost structures accordingly) and then lower it non-discretionary spend.  The key is to (i) see the whole process, (ii) understand the dependencies, and (iii) engage locally.

  • Minimise (Hard Costs) –  Tactical Cost Reduction. Grab the low hanging fruit and take out the obvious costs; the costs in plain sight.  Engage locally with account managers and business unit leaders to reduce headcount but understand and model the dependencies by seeing the whole capability.  The Boston Consulting Group advise that managers proceed on third of a third rule, ie 1/3 of all FTEs are non customer facing and 1/3 of those can be removed without adverse impact on the business.
  • Optimise (Soft & Program Costs) –  Proactive Cost Governance.  This involves detailed spend analysis and process optimisation.  Indirect process costs grow like barnacles on a ship.  The longer they are there the more they are accepted but ultimately they increase the financial drag on a business.  Remove all the invented tasks by modelling the firm’s value chain and seeing where the processes fit into larger business capabilities.  Once this is done executives can optimise the key cost drivers and their inputs.  This improves the delivery model for ICT and enables better demand management.  Accompanying these operational actions the business should improve cost governance.  It can achieve this by removing the management structures around excessive process governance.  This requires a more active and dynamic GRC system but ultimately the business feels a lighter GRC touch.  Most importantly, simplify processes and remove the  ‘cost of complexity‘ ie vertical integration and convoluted workflows which increase process time and transactional costs.

cost reduction level.accenture

  • Re-design (Program & Managerial Costs) –  Strategic Cost Management.  In order to achieve significant and lasting cost reduction benefits the business must lower its discretionary spend.  However, managerial cost structures (which are significant) can only be made redundant when the overall complexity is reduced.  Once this happens shared services may be implemented and rationalised.  The ICT offering can be standardised and the business can create re-usable technology components.  Then the business can change its transfer pricing models and look towards offering the customer-facing SBUs a more sophisticated multi-channel mix of capabilities, ie give them the agility to increase their high-end customer offerings.   Only once this is achieved can the business look towards modernising and streamline technical architectures.

The key is to look at ICT as a capability enabler and not as a business unit in its own right.  ICT should have to justify its very existence.  However, once it does and develops full cost transparency then and only then can it move forward in real partnership with the business.

 

The Complexity of Cost (Pt.1): problems with ICT cost reduction Reply

cost reduction

In a crisis the company P&L statement can be a useful starting point for cost reduction programs.  Over the long term, however, general ledger entries do not have the required level of detail to garner the requisite per unit analysis (McKinsey, May 2010).  Unfortunately, few companies do not have systems which can analyse the complexity of cost and spend in order to make accurate and detailed changes.

In the following series of blogs we will highlight the problems with standard ICT cost reduction & management programs and detail how to structure and run one effectively.

The key to an effective ICT cost reduction & management program is detailed cost modelling.  Most financial systems do not capture costs at the right level of detail for businesses to perform accurate and detailed cost reductions.  Businesses need to perform intricate spend analyses and build up intricate cost models for ICT which highlight the following:

  • The capabilities which various ICT components support (and where in the Value Chain they lie).  Only through this level of visibility can the business consolidate their ICT spend.
  • The HR and process dependencies which are indirectly attributed to various ICT elements.  Only with this level of detail can ICT remove duplication and redundancy.

In the absence of this granularity, cost reduction programs invariably fail or fail to stick.  In fact, McKinsey & Co note that 90% of cost reduction programs fail.  Only 10% of these programs actually succeed in realising sustained cost management three years on.

In a typical IT cost reduction cycle the following happens:

  • Headcount is reduced.  The remaining people then have to work harder (but with fewer skills, because tasks are pushed to the lower pay bands) to achieve the same amount of work.
  • Many, often unique, soft skills are also removed (from experienced people in the higher pay bands) in the redundancies.
  • Overall service levels decrease.
  • Further cost reductions are then required and some applications and services are axed.

In simple businesses this is not a problem.  In large and complex businesses the outcome usually follows a vicious cycle, namely:

  1. The firm still needs to retain a significant management overhead in order to deal with complexity.
  2. In these cases, poor transfer pricing and high overhead allocations mean that perfectly good, competitive core business process seem cost-ineffective.
  3. Critically, Kaplan notes in his seminal work “Relevance Lost: The Rise and Fall of Management Accounting” that the increased costs of  processes leads to outsourcing of perfectly good processes.
  4. Capability suffers and the  business loses competitive advantage.
  5.  The business is no longer able to deal with the level of complexity and complexity reaches an inflection point.  The business outsources the whole problem (eg, large ERM programs with much customisation),  getting locked into  horrific terms and conditions.
  6. Core business is lost and competitive advantage is reduced. Remaining managers pad out their budgets with excessive risk and contingency in order to shield themselves from further cost reductions.
  7. Overheads increase again and the business eventually prices itself out of the market.

cost reduction.accenture

In a recent (2010) Accenture survey on general cost reduction effectiveness in the banking industry, 40% of  respondents noted that the program has reduced overall ICT effectiveness and impacted adversely on both customer service and general management.

in order to reduce costs effectively without impinging on capability as well as making new costs stick, it is essential to view costs and spend at the most granular level possible.

In our next blogs we will go into detail how to structure and run an effective ICT cost reduction and cost management program including effective ICT cost modelling.